Main    Аbout book    About    Source    Bibliography    Books Project    Participants    Instructions    Links    Contacts    About book    Source    Bibliography    About book    Source    Bibliography    About book    Source    Bibliography    The Book of Sirach     The Book of Baruch     The Book of Tobit          
Text version

Verse (from)
Verse (to)
1. Hebrew text.
The book of Ben Sira was initially written in Hebrew, this can we read in the Prologue of the book, composed by the grandson of Sirach. Most likely the book was earlier a part of Hebrew Bible canon, because its citations in Jewish text "Pirke Abot" are anticipated by words "as it is written", which is distinctive for Bible citations. The citations are presented also in writings of Rabbi Akiba, Ben Azai and other writings of V-IX centures. There are witnesses, that Saadia Ben Gaon (882-942) used the Hebrew text of Ben Sira, and he was accused by qaraims, because he used a voweled text of his own writings, and that was possible only for Torah. And Saadia answered, that the voweled text is used also in other writings, e.g. in the book of Ben Sira. But after Saadia we do not have any witness of using of the Hebrew text of Ben Sira.
The Hebrew text was found again in 1896 in a Geniza in Kairo. There were many discussions about the authencity of this text, but, when other fragments were found in Massada and Qumran, the identity was proved (though some fragments could be translations from Greek and Syriac versions).

2. Greek text.
The Greek translation was made by the grandson of Ben Sira. All existing manuscripts contain a mistake in the text order: the fragment 30.25-33.13a should be between 33.16a-b., so all they belong to one manuscript prototype. Some manuscripts have additions - glosses, perhaps they come from another Greek translation. There are many hapax legomena in the Greek text of Ben Sira.

3. Latin text.
The Latin translation was made from Greek and included by St. Jerome in the Vulgata without changes. The character of translation is rather free.

4. Syriac translations.
4.1. Syro-Palestinian translation.

It was made from Greek, probably from the Lucian´s recension of LXX.

4.2. Syro-Hexaplarian translation.
It was made by bishop Paul of Tella in 617 and follows word by word the Hexaplarian recension of LXX.

4.3. Peshitta translation.
It has special importance, because it was made from Hebrew, but is very free. There are traces of Jewish and Christian influences.

5. Coptic translations.
They are made from Greek and are close to it.

6. Ethiopic translation.
It was made from Greek and is very free, probably because translators did not know Greek well enough.

7. Armenian translation.
There are two Armenian translations. the later was made after the earlier was lost.

8. Arabic translations.
The first translation was made probably from Peshitta and then corrected from Greek. The second was made also from Peshitta.

9. Church-Slavonic translation.
It was made from Greek and is close to Vatican codex text.

10. Russian translation.
It was made from Greek, but the numeration of verses was taken from Vulgate.

Russian Greec Hebrew Latin Syriac English gernam